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Purine nucleobases

Purine nucleobases (A and G) are one of the two nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Adenine forms hydrogen bonds with complementary pyrimidine bases (thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA) to form base pairs that make up the double-helix DNA and single-stranded RNA structures.


Hydrogen bonds play a critical role in the process of DNA replication. During DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA molecule must be separated into two single strands. Hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs of the two strands must be broken to allow the separation of the strands.


Nitrogen atoms play a crucial role in DNA replication by forming the base pairs that make up the genetic code. The nitrogenous bases, adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C), are the building blocks of DNA.


Carbon atoms play an essential role in DNA replication by providing the backbone of the DNA molecule.

Chemical bonds

Chemical bonds are the attractive forces between atoms. These bonds form when atoms share or exchange electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. The bond formed depends on the electronegativity of the atoms involved. Chemical bonds are crucial in determining the properties and behavior of molecules and compounds.