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Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) perform protein synthesis inside mitochondria. 13 membrane proteins that are crucial parts of the complexes involved in ATP synthesis for the eukaryotic cell are produced by ribosomes.

Circular DNA

Mitochondrial DNA is the circular double-stranded DNA molecule found inside the mitochondria. It contains only 37 genes necessary for proper mitochondrial function and is inherited exclusively from the mother.


It is a dense, viscous material that contains ribosomes and mitochondrial DNA. It has the appropriate enzymes and suitable pH for the Krebs cycle, producing energy for cells.

Outer membrane

The mitochondrial outer membrane separates the intermembrane space from the cytosol and helps exchange molecules and information between the mitochondria and the cell.


The inner membrane is folded into cristae to boost the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP. These folds enable the mitochondrion to contain many more ATP synthase and electron transport chain enzymes.

Inner membrane

The mitochondrial inner membrane is the site of the electron transport chain, an essential step in aerobic respiration, and is loaded with proteins involved in electron transport and ATP synthesis.