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CILIA: Cilia emerge from the pellicle and cover the entire body surface. They are responsible for movement and the intake of bacteria and nutrient-rich water through the gullet.


A pellicle encases the cytoplasm of the cell. Pellicles are made up of three layers: an outer plasma membrane, an inner epiplasm layer, and a layer of alveoli sandwiched between the two. The pellicle is a flexible membrane that gives the cell its distinct yet changing shape.


There are many contractile vacuoles, and their number varies by species. They are necessary for osmoregulation and to discharge the extra water absorbed.


Paramecia have one macronucleus responsible for its survival as it helps regulate all critical metabolic activities and development. The genome is duplicated in this macronucleus.


Paramecia have at least one or more micronuclei: diploid chromosome-bearing storehouses. Without these organelles, the Paramecia cannot reproduce.


It is of two types:

i) A thin layer of clear, firm cytoplasm called the ectoplasm directly beneath the pellicle and

ii) The inner, more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is called the endoplasm and contains granules, food vacuoles, and crystals of different sizes.


The organism's food is encapsulated in food vacuoles. They subsequently join with lysosomes, which contain enzymes that break down food molecules and perform digestion.


The cytoproct or cytopyge is an anal hole found on the ventral surface of the cell's posterior half that aids in the egestion of undigested food, water, and gas.


On the ventral side of the midline, there is an oral groove known as the vestibule. Because of the coordinated movement of cilia, food is attracted within the cell.