Pollen Grain Shapes

Natural design

Beautiful morphological diversity and specificity are observed between various species of plant pollen structure.

Pollen grain

Each pollen grain is produced in the anther and is a single cell containing two male gametes.


Wind, water, insects, etc., help move the pollen to the female flower resulting in fertilization.

Surface projections

Help in adhering pollen grains to the stigmatic surface and the bodies of insect pollinators.


The outer layer is high in sporopollenin, a rigid, chemical, and water-resistant biomaterial.

Foldable structures

The pollen wall folds onto itself to prevent water loss until it has been deposited on the stigma.

Pollen apertures

There are fine breaks in the exine wall for interacting with the environment and as a pollen tube exit route.

Pollen surface specificity

Plants pollinated with the help of wind or water tend to have a smoother pollen surface for better aerodynamics than plants pollinated by animals.

Pollen Allergies

Pollen from grass, weeds, and trees causes allergic reactions with symptoms such as sneezing, a stuffy nose, and watery eyes.