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Beautiful morphological diversity and specificity are observed between various species of plant pollen structure.
Each pollen grain is produced in the anther and is a single cell containing two male gametes.
Wind, water, insects, etc., help move the pollen to the female flower resulting in fertilization.
Help in adhering pollen grains to the stigmatic surface and the bodies of insect pollinators.
The outer layer is high in sporopollenin, a rigid, chemical, and water-resistant biomaterial.
The pollen wall folds onto itself to prevent water loss until it has been deposited on the stigma.
There are fine breaks in the exine wall for interacting with the environment and as a pollen tube exit route.
Pollen surface specificity
Plants pollinated with the help of wind or water tend to have a smoother pollen surface for better aerodynamics than plants pollinated by animals.
Pollen from grass, weeds, and trees causes allergic reactions with symptoms such as sneezing, a stuffy nose, and watery eyes.