DNA Replication

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged around proteins into thread-like structures called chromosomes. It carries the genetic information of the organism.

DNA template

DNA is double-stranded, and each strand acts as a template for synthesizing a new, complementary strand by complementary base-pairing (A with T, and G with C).

DNA Polymerase

The enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes DNA synthesis by the stepwise addition of a deoxyribonucleotide to the 3′-OH end of a polynucleotide chain.


DNA helicases are proteins that help separate the two complementary strands of DNA into template strands for DNA synthesis to proceed.

Lagging strand

Also called Okazaki fragments, it is the strand of daughter DNA that is synthesized discontinuously in DNA replication and later linked together.

Leading strand

This is the daughter strand replicated continuously in the same direction as the moving fork by the DNA polymerase.

Replication fork

It is a Y-shaped forked structure observed in the active area of DNA, where the actual replication process occurs at the moment.