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Upper Limb
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The Humerus

The humerus is a long upper limb bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow and defines the human arm. Its main function is to support our shoulders and various movements of our arms. At the elbow joint, it joins the ulna and the radius.

The Ulna

The ulna makes up one-half of the forearm and is the longer and larger of the lower arm bones. It extends from the elbow to the wrist and provides attachment surfaces for several upper limb muscles to control their movements.

The Radius

The radius is shorter than the ulna and has one end that articulates with the humerus to allow for turning the palm up and another end that articulates with the carpal bones at the wrist. All land vertebrates have this bone.

Carpal bones

There are eight carpal bones in the wrist that connect the forearm's radial and ulnar bones to the hand's metacarpal bones. Each carpal bone has its unique shape and allows for various movements of the soft tissues of the hand.

Metacarpal bones

A metacarpus is a group of five hand bones between the phalanges and the carpus. They are found in the palm of the hand and allow the fingertips and thumb to be brought together. The first metacarpal attaches to several hand muscles.

The Phalanges

The phalanges are 14 bones found in the fingers of each hand. Each finger has three phalanges while the thumb only has two. These bones allow us to flex and fold the fingers and thumb to hold or pick something up and carry on all daily activities.