Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing molecules' structure, characteristics, content, reactions, and production. The most common components in organic molecules are carbon and hydrogen, although they can also contain a variety of additional elements (e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur).
Organic chemistry is the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and it is a branch of chemistry.
Carbon Compounds and Their Shapes:
Why Are There So Many Organic Compounds?
(a) Catenation It is a self-combination propensity that is strongest in carbon. A carbon atom can form single, double, or triple bonds with other carbon atoms. As a result, it produces a greater number of compounds than the others.
(b) Small size and tetravalency Carbon, being a tetravalent element, may form bonds with four additional C atoms or monovalent atoms. Carbon may react with oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine, sulphur, nitrogen, and phosphorus to produce compounds. The type of the element or group linked to the carbon determines the characteristics of these compounds.
General Characteristics of Organic Compounds
Carbon compounds including H, 0, N, S, P, F, CI, Br, and 1.
These can be present in most living species. carbs, proteins, and so forth.
These can be liquids, gases, or solids.
Because they are covalent, they have a low boiling and melting point and are soluble in organic solvents.
They're usually combustible and volatile.
They do not conduct electricity because of the absence of free ions.
They have a unique appearance and odour.
1. Based on the number of Cs attached
(i) The first carbon atom A primary or 1° carbon atom is one that has only one other carbon atom bonded to it.
(ii) Carbon atoms with a secondary carbon atom Secondary or 2°carbon atoms are formed when a carbon atom is joined to two additional carbon atoms.
iii) Carbon atom in the tertiary state The tertiary or 3° carbon atom is formed when a carbon atom is joined to three additional carbon atoms.
(iv) Carbon atom from the Quaternary Period The quaternary or 40 carbon atom is formed when a carbon atom is joined to four additional carbon atoms.
The following is the reactivity order of carbon atoms: 3° vs. 2° vs. 1°.
On the Basis of Position of Functional Group
(i) carbon dioxide: The functional group is directly connected to carbon.
(ii) Carbon that is bonded to the n-carbon directly.
Hydrogen Atom Classification
1°-hydrogen (primary) is connected to a ten-carbon molecule.
2°-hydrogen linked to 2°-carbon (secondary).
3°-hydrogen linked to 3°-carbon (tertiary).
the element hydrogen (s) Hydrogens linked to the n-carbon atom.
the element hydrogen (s) Hydrogens with a carbon atom bonded to them.
Homologous series are those in which the molecular formulas of adjacent members differ by a – CH2 unit, and homologous members are those in which the molecular formulas of adjacent members differ by a – CH2 unit.
The following are some of the series' general characteristics:
The functional groups of all homologues are the same. As a result, their chemical characteristics are almost identical.
A series' members all have the same general formula.
Almost identical approaches may be used to prepare all of the members.
The physical characteristics of a series gradually change as the molecular weight of the series increases.
Different Formulae Representation
The following are some examples of how an organic compound might be represented:
It vividly depicts all of the bonds that exist between any two atoms.
All of the bonds aren't depicted clearly in it.
In such formulas, it is assumed that the requisite number of H-atoms are present where they are required (to meet carbon's tetravalency)
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
The improved and widely used IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) approach was established in 1957.
These regulations are updated by IUPAC on a regular basis. We are using the IUPAC nomenclature standards from 1993.
The name of an organic compound has three elements, according to the IUPAC system: (i) word root, (ii) suffix, and (iii) prefix.
(i) Word root: The number of carbon atoms in the primary chain, which is the longest conceivable chain of carbon atoms, is represented by the word root.
(ii) Suffix: There are two sorts of suffix: main and secondary.
(a) Primary Suffix: It denotes the kind of carbon atom link.
(iii) Prefix: A prefix occurs before the word root in an IUPAC name. There are two sorts of prefixes:
(a) Main prefix: The primary prefix cyclo, for example, is used to distinguish cyclic compounds.
(b) Secondary prefix: Some functional groups are termed substituents and are designated by secondary prefixes.
Naming of Functional Group-Containing Compounds
Isomerism occurs when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but distinct structural formulas, as well as differing physical and chemical characteristics.
Isomers are the name for such compounds.
There are two types:
(1) Isomerism in Structure
(1) Structural Isomerism: Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas differ in the arrangement of atoms demonstrate structural isomerism.
(2) Stereoisomerism: Stereoisomerism is a phenomena that occurs when isomerism is generated by various configurations of atoms or groups in space.
The steroeoisomers contain the same structural formula, but their atoms are arranged differently in space. There are two forms of stereoisomerism:
(i) Cis-Trans Isomerism or Geometrical Isomerism
(ii) Optical Isomerism
Organic Reaction Mechanisms: Basic Concepts
A covalent bond's fission: Fission can occur in two ways in a covalent bond:
(i) By Homolytic Fission or Homolysis (ii) By Heterolytic Fission or Heterolysis
Orbital Concept of Hyperconjugation
Organic Compounds Qualitative Analysis
Carbon and hydrogen detection: Put Copper Oxide Test: About three times the weight of dry copper oxide is mixed in with the organic component. After that, the mixture is transferred to a hard glass test tube with a bent delivery tube. The other end is dipped in lime water in a separate test tube.
Sodium Test for Halogens
Carbon and hydrogen estimation
(i) Dumas method: This approach is based on the fact that when nitrogenous chemicals are burned with copper oxide in a carbon dioxide environment, free nitrogen is produced.
By passing through a heated copper spiral, traces of nitrogen oxides, which may occur in some situations, are converted to elemental nitrogen.
(ii) Kjeldahl's Methods: Kjeldahl's technique is based on the fact that an organic molecule containing nitrogen is transformed to ammonium sulphate when heated with con. H2S04. The resulting liquid is subsequently treated with too much alkali, and the released ammonia gas is absorbed with too much acid. Finding the quantity of acid neutralised by back filtration with a standard alkali yields the amount of ammonia.