Cell Organization Study Guide

The cell organization is the arrangement of components in a cell. Cells are the smallest functional living unit and the most basic part. The cells are minute in size, but the organization of cells is very precise.

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The cell organization forms an integral part of every living organism. Every type of cell has similar features, including RNA, DNA, ribosomes, cell membrane, and cytoplasm. The cell structure of eukaryotic cells includes a large assortment of organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus. On the contrary, the prokaryotic cell structure lacks a nucleus and organelles.

Cellular Organization definition and example

The components that make up a cell are called cellular organization. Every component of the cell has certain specific and crucial functions assigned, and the components of the cell are called organelle.

Every living being has different levels of organization. When a single cell performs all the functions of life, it is termed a unicellular organism or single-celled organism. When there are several levels of the organization, it is termed a multicellular organization or many-celled organization. The cellular organization example includes bone cells, nerve cells, blood cells, and many more.

It is also observed that the single cells perform certain functions individually and perform together with other cells in cellular organization biology for the benefit of the entire organism.

Functional Components of a Cell

The cellular organization definition of biology has ascertained certain specific functions of every level of the cell. Some of these functions are summarized below:

cell Source

1. Cell Membrane

  • The other name of the cell membrane is the plasma membrane.
  • It acts as a rigid barrier between the outside environment and the inside of the cell.
  • It is formed with a phospholipid bilayer or fluid mosaic model.
  • The functions of protein in the cell membrane are recognizing cells and transporting molecules.

2. Cell Walls

  • The outer covering of cells such as archaea, bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants placed beside a cell membrane is called the cell wall.
  • The cell wall is created from sturdier compounds such as cellulose in plants and peptidoglycan in bacteria.
  • There are two types of cell walls found in plants: primary cell walls and secondary cell walls.

3. Nucleus

  • The plural form of the nucleus is termed nuclei. This cellular organization example is believed to be the cell's control center.
  • All the genetic material or genome is stored in it, and processes such as RNA processing, transcription, DNA replication are performed here.

4. Vesicles

  • The membrane sac that performs the transport and storage of molecules inside and outside the cells is called vesicles.
  • Molecules are typically transported outside the cell with the help of exocytosis and imported inside the cell with the help of endocytosis and phagocytosis.

5. Vacuole

  • The membrane-bound organelle that stores nutrients, food, and non-nourishing chemicals are vacuole.
  • It creates hydro-static pressure by storing water. The waste products are temporarily stored in vesicles.

6. Ribosomes

  • The place where protein synthesis takes place is called ribosomes.
  • They are associated with various functions such as building blocks of membranes, structural support, catalyzing biochemical reactions, and many more.

7. Endoplasmic reticulum

There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum, namely:

  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum It is a highly convoluted and extensive organelle involved in regulating, folding, and producing proteins.
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum It forms an interconnecting network between the Golgi body and the endoplasmic reticulum.

8. Mitochondria

The singular form of mitochondria is mitochondrion and is rightly called the cell's powerhouse. The process of cellular respiration is performed in this double membraned organelle. The usable form of energy, such as carbohydrates and sugar, is produced from precursor molecules.

9. Chloroplast

  • This double membraned organelle is found specifically in algae or plant cells.
  • It is a part of the photosynthesis process and converts water, carbon dioxide, and light energy to carbohydrates.
  • They have their origin in the engulfment of cyanobacteria.

10. Golgi Body

  • Named after the Italian biologist Camillo Golgi, it is associated with lysosome production.
  • Golgi Body is also termed as Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus.
  • The final packaging and modification of molecules such as protein are performed here.
  • These molecules are stored in vesicles or sent outside.


  • For efficient performance, many cell organization comes together to form tissues.
  • A group of tissues, similar cells, and similar structures together form an organ.
  • The physiological processes of the group of organs are called organ systems, and many organ systems together form an organism.


1. What are the 5 levels of cell organization?

The life of an organization is made out of several levels that majorly include organ, tissue, cellular, chemical, organ system, and organism level.

2. What are the types of cell organization?

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic are the two types of cell organization.

3. What is an example of a cellular organization?

Bone cells, nerve cells, blood cells, and many more are cellular organizations.

4. What is the main idea of cell organization?

Cell organization is the minute compartments in the body of an organism that keeps it successful and alive. They are the structural unit of an organism and can be single-celled or multicellular.

5. Who first studied the cell?

Robert Hooke first discovered cells through a microscope in the year 1665.

6. Where do lysosomes arise?

Lysosomes arise in the Golgi apparatus and are termed as cells protein machinery. The protein is formed and is transferred to various components of cells.

7. Who are the 5 scientists who contributed to the cell theory?

Robert Hooke was the first scientist who discovered the cell. After that, other scientists such as Virchow, Remak, Schwann, and Schleiden also discovered cell theories.

8. Which scientist gave the cell theory?

Theodor Schwann proposed the classical cell theory in the year 1839

9. Why is cellular organization important?

The cellular organization is important for the survival of any organism as it performs body functions and takes care of the daily chores of the body.

10. What is the nucleus?

The nucleus is a double membrane-bound protoplasmic body and stores genetic material.

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  1. Cellular Organization: Exploring The Cell. https://www.bioexplorer.net/cellular-organization.html/. Accessed 7 Dec, 2021.
  2. Cell Organization. https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/2.10/primary/lesson/organization-of-cells-bio/. Accessed 7 Dec, 2021.
  3. Cell. https://www.britannica.com/science/cell-biology. Accessed 7 Dec, 2021.