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Coevolution, Macroevolution, and Animal Evolution Study Guide

Any change in heritable features in a population of organisms across generations is called evolution. Natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and other factors may have influenced these alterations.

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Introduction:

Macroevolution is evolution at or above the species level, and it's the outcome of hundreds of generations of microevolution. Macroevolution can entail evolutionary changes in two or more interacting species, such as co-evolution, or it might involve the development of one or more new species. Co-evolution occurs when the evolution of two or more species is reciprocally influenced by natural selection.

Microevolution:

Microevolution is the gradual shift in allele frequencies within a population over time. Mutation, natural and artificial selection, gene flow, and genetic drift are factors in this shift. This transformation takes place over a relatively brief period of time (in evolutionary terms). Microevolution can lead to speciation, which gives macroevolution the raw materials it needs.

Macroevolution:

In contemporary meaning, macroevolution is evolution led by selection among interspecific variation instead of microevolution, guided by selection among intraspecific variation. This is different from the original definition, which referred to macroevolution as the evolution of taxa above the species level.

Difference between microevolution and macroevolution:

Microevolution is led by sorting intraspecific variation, whereas macroevolution is guided by sorting interspecific variation. Species selection can take two forms:

(a) Impact macroevolution, in which organism-level features (aggregate variables) influence speciation and extinction rates

(b) Strict species selection, in which species-level traits (e.g., geographic range) influence speciation and extinction rates. Macroevolution does not create evolutionary novelties; rather, it controls their spread within the clades in which they emerged, and it incorporates species-level features as non-organismic sorting factors.

Microevolution vs. macroevolution Source

How new species emerge is one of the most important problems in macroevolution, and speciation is how a new species emerges.

To comprehend how a new species emerges, it is necessary to define what a species is. A species is a collection of creatures that can mate and produce viable offspring in nature.

Some individuals of a species must become reproductively separated from the rest of the species for a new species to emerge. This implies they are no longer able to interbreed with other species members. What causes this to happen? The majority of the time, they become geographically separated initially.

Allopatric speciation:

When two populations of the same species become isolated due to geographic changes, this is known as allopatric speciation. Speciation is the progressive transformation of populations into separate species. Because a species is defined as a population that may interbreed, members of a population split into two or more different populations that can no longer breed with each other during speciation.

Sympatric speciation:

This is when a new species evolves from a surviving ancestor species while both remain in the same geographic location. Sympatric and sympatry are words used in evolutionary biology and biogeography to describe creatures whose ranges overlap and exist together, at least in certain areas. This distribution might result from sympatric speciation if these creatures are closely related (e.g., sister species).

Timeline of macroevolution:

  1. When the climatic and geologic circumstances are steady, evolution can slowly and steadily. Darwin believed that evolution took place in this manner, and gradualism is the name given to this notion of evolution's timeline.
  2. Evolution may occur more swiftly when climate or geology circumstances change, and bursts of relatively fast change can disrupt long periods of minimal change. Punctuated equilibrium is the name given to this concept of evolution timing, and the fossil evidence typically backs it up better than gradualism.

Co-evolution:

Co-evolution Source

In most cases, evolution is triggered by environmental changes. Other creatures are frequently impacted by environmental change. Many species develop in tandem with the species they interact with, referred to as co-evolution. To adapt to changes in one species, the other species must also alter.

Conclusion:

  • Macroevolution is an evolution that takes place at or above the species level, and it's the outcome of hundreds of generations of microevolution.
  • Microevolution is the gradual shift in allele frequencies within a population over time. Mutation, natural and artificial selection, gene flow, and genetic drift are factors in this shift.
  • Microevolution can lead to speciation, which gives macroevolution the raw materials it needs.
  • When two populations of the same species become isolated due to geographic changes, this is known as allopatric speciation. Speciation is the progressive transformation of populations into separate species.
  • Sympatric speciation occurs when a new species evolves from a surviving ancestor species while both remain in the same geographic location.
  • Co-evolution occurs when the evolution of two or more species is reciprocally influenced by natural selection.

FAQs:

1. What are examples of co-evolution?

  • Flowering plant and pollinators: The pollination interaction between flowering plants and the insects and birds that fertilize them Blooms and pollinators have evolved co-adaptations that allow flowers to attract pollinators. In contrast, insects and birds have evolved specific adaptations for collecting nectar and pollen from the plants.

  • Predator-prey co-evolution: One of the most frequent instances of co-evolution is the predator-prey interaction. In this regard, the prey is under selection pressure to evade capture, and the predator must develop to become more successful hunters as a result. In this way, predator-prey co-evolution is akin to an evolutionary arms race, with unique adaptations developed to prevent or discourage predation, particularly in prey species.

2. What are the 3 types of co-evolution?

Scientists in ecology and evolutionary biology frequently debate three types of co-evolution: paired co-evolution, diffuse co-evolution, and gene-for-gene co-evolution.

3. What is coevolutionary development?

Co-evolution is the evolution of two or more species that reciprocally impact one other, sometimes resulting in a mutualistic connection.

4. Which animal is an example of co-evolution?

Predator-prey co-evolution is one of the most frequent instances of co-evolution.

5. What is the difference between evolution and co-evolution?

Co-evolution is the (biology) evolution of animals from two or more species that adapt to changes in the other. In contrast, evolution is the (biology) change in the genetic composition through generations.

6. What are the 3 types of evolution?

Divergent, convergent, and parallel evolution are the 3 main types of evolution.

7. How does macroevolution relate to evolution?

Macroevolution is a term that refers to evolution that occurs above the level of a single species. The basic evolutionary forces of mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection can create considerable evolutionary change if given enough time. Macroevolution is an evolution that occurs at a higher level than species evolution. As a result, macroevolution is concerned with the emergence, diversification, and extinction of clades (groups of species sharing a single common ancestor).

8. What is macroevolution?

Macroevolution is an evolution that takes place at or above the species level, and it's the outcome of hundreds of generations of microevolution. Macroevolution can entail evolutionary changes in two or more interacting species, such as co-evolution, or it might involve the development of one or more new species.

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Sources:

  1. Co-evolutionhttps://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/5.23/primary/lesson/coevolution-bio/ Accessed on 7 Dec 2021
  2. Coevolutionhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coevolution Accessed on 7 Dec 2021
  3. Animal Evolutionhttps://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/5.25/primary/lesson/animal-evolution-bio/ Accessed on 7 Dec 2021
  4. Macroevolutionhttps://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/5.24/primary/lesson/macroevolution-bio/ Accessed on 7 Dec 2021
  5. Macroevolutionhttps://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Human_Biology/Book%3A_Human_Biology_(Wakim_and_Grewal)/09%3A_Biological_Evolution/9.5%3A_Macroevolution Accessed on 7 Dec 2021