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Swati Talwar

Annelids Study Guide

The Phylum Annelida is included in the domain Animalia. Annelids are found on both land and water. They are symmetrical invertebrates, and their serrated body distinguishes them.

Introduction

A phylum is a collection of creatures. Segmented worms, such as earthworms, are squeezed together into phylum Annelida. Segmented worms are made up of many segments, all of which consists ofthe same length. There are around 15,000 distinct annelid species. Most individuals may be divided into three groups. In the next part, we'll describe the species for each class.

What are Annelids?

Phylum Annelida, also called as ringed worms, are commonly found in different habitats. The name of the phylum is derived from the Latin word annellus, which means a small ring. Animals in this phylum show parasitic and commensal symbiosis with other species in their habitat.

Annelida characteristics:

The organisms of the phylum annelida exhibit the following characteristics:

  • Annelids are coelomate and triploblastic, which explains their name.
  • They have an advanced level of organ system organization.
  • Their bodies are seen in sections.
  • They inhale and exhale via their whole body, not just their lungs.
  • The nephridia are the excretory organs.
  • As a consequence, their cardiovascular and digestive systems are well developed.
  • Their bodies contain hemoglobin, which gives them a red appearance.
  • In annelida, regeneration is a reasonably common characteristic.
  • They move by use of setae.
  • A hermaphrodite is an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs. They are sexually and asexually reproducing, and each is sexually reproducing.
  • Earthworms and leeches are two examples.

Classification of Annelida

The subcategories of annelids are:

  • Polychaeta
  • Oligochaeta
  • Hirudinea
  • Archiannelida

Polychaeta

  • The body's segments are more significant and divided.
  • They are often seen in oceans and seas.
  • These are true coelomates, bilaterally symmetrical worms.
  • They remove waste through metanephridia and protonephridia.
  • External variables have a part in the fertilization process.
  • They have entirely formed nervous systems.
  • This is referred to as a closed system.
  • They come in both male and female forms.
  • There may be parapodia, a fin-like appendage.
  • This group of organisms is dioecious and lacks a clitellum. For instance, Nereis and Sylla.

Oligochaeta

  • They are primarily composed of freshwater and terrestrial creatures.
  • The bulk of these species are freshwater or terrestrial.
  • The body is segmented metamerically.
  • It's tough to distinguish the tentacles apart from the creature's other traits.
  • Despite their hermaphroditic nature, they are capable of cross-fertilization.
  • A source of external fertilization is necessary.
  • A cocoon develops.
  • The setae are segmented.
  • They lack parapodia but possess clitellum.
  • This class contains monoecious organisms.
  • Their whole development occurs inside their cocoons. These insects do not have a free larval stage. For instance, Pheretima and Tubifex.

Hirudinea

  • Mostly freshwater, while particular creatures may be aquatic, terrestrial, or even parasitic.
  • Human body segments may be discovered.
  • No tentacles, parapodia, or setae are present.
  • Monoecious organisms have been discovered.
  • The rear and front of the body, as well as the cylinder, are flattened.
  • They have anterior and posterior suckers on the ventral side.
  • The animals deposit their eggs in cocoons.
  • The organism does not undergo larval development.
  • Suckers have two mouths; the anterior sucker has a mouth, while the posterior sucker has an anus.
  • Fertilization occurs solely inside the female reproductive system.
  • They come in both male and female forms.
  • For instance, Hirudinaria

Archiannelida

  • They are found exclusively in the ocean.
  • The body is expanded in the absence of setae or parapodia.
  • They fall into one of two categories: hermaphrodites or unisexual.
  • Tentacles cover the prostomium.
  • Dinophilus and Protodrilus are two species that illustrate this.

Annelids' growth and function

Annelid worms are classified according to their morphology and function. It ranges in size is from a single mm to three meters. Annelids may create more internal organs than most other animals due to their bigger coeloms.

Additionally, annelids have the following characteristics:

  • The circulatory system with a closed-loop (like cephalopods).
  • Nephridia tubular create an excretory system.
  • A healthy digestive tract.
  • A mental framework.
  • Organs that are sensitive to light and other stimuli.
  • Gas exchange through gills (but many exchange gas through their skin).

The segmentation of annelids is very flexible. To begin, it facilitates movement. Each area is densely packed with nerves and muscles. Consequently, specialized muscular contractions may be employed to move just the muscle fibers necessary for a particular motion. Additionally, a segmented animal might have specialized segments that execute specific duties. This increases the animal's total efficiency, making it more productive. Surprisingly, annelids can recover missing body parts, referred to as regeneration.

Annelida animals have a variety of structures covering their body that aid them in movement and other duties. There are species-specific differences. Numerous constructions are described in the annelida diagram below.

Annelida Source

Annelid regeneration

Most annelid species are capable of both asexual and sexual reproduction, except a few. Leeches can reproduce exclusively via sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction happens via the processes of budding and fission. The rate of sexual reproduction varies from species to species.

  • In some species, sperm and eggs are generated by the same individual. In case of self-fertilization, worm eggs are not self-fertile. Around the fertilized eggs, a mucous cocoon forms.
  • Offspring of adult size emerges from the cocoon. They do not undergo a larval stage on their way to maturity.
  • There are both male and female polychaete species. Adult worms build reproductive systems via a profound transformation of their bodies.
  • This also impacts adults. They all swim to the surface and release their gametes to fertilize the water.
  • Their progeny must first pass through the larval stage before becoming adults.

Annelids and their habitat

Annelids inhabit various habitats, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. They are entirely distinct in what they eat and how they get their nutrition.

Conclusion

  • Annelids, often known as segmented worms, include earthworms and leeches.
  • In annelids, the coelom, circulatory, excretory, and digestive systems are all present. They also have a functioning brain.
  • Earthworms provide two additional activities and deposit feeders: soil formation and enrichment.
  • The position of a leech in the food chain dictates whether it is a predator or a parasite. Parasitic leeches feed on the blood of their vertebrate victims.

FAQs:

1. What are the characteristics of annelids?

  • They are coelomate and triploblastic in their structure.
  • They are classified according to the organ system.
  • Their surface is porous.
  • Nephridia are the excretory organs.
  • Their cardiovascular and digestive systems are developed to a high degree.

2. Do earthworms belong to phylum annelida?

Yes. Oligochaeta, or terrestrial worms, include the earthworm, which is also known as the angleworm (phylum Annelida) sometimes.

3. Are annelids solitary or colonial?

They live alone (solitary) or in colonies adhering to rocks in the aquatic environment. They are stationary, simply constructed, and come in tubular or pitcher forms.

4. How do annelids breathe?

They inhale via their skin, with the skin mucus dissolving air.

5. Are annelids cold-blooded?

Yes, they are cold-blooded.

6. What is the difference between metameres and septa?

Separating walls or septa are constructed between the two parts internally. Annelid worms have cylindrical bodies that are both segmented internally and externally.

We hope you enjoyed studying this lesson and learned something remarkable about Annelids! Join our Discord community to get any questions you may have answered and to engage with other students just like you! Don't forget to download our App and check out our excellent VR room for this guide - we promise it makes studying much more fun 😎

Sources:

  1. Annelids https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/11.9/primary/lesson/annelids-bio/ Accessed on 6 Dec 2021
  2. Annelida https://byjus.com/biology/annelida/ Accessed on 6 Dec 2021
  3. Annelida https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Annelida/#:~:text=The%20annelids%20include%20earthworms%2C%20polychaete,Segmentation%20is%20also%20called%20metamerism.
  4. Accessed on 6 Dec 2021