Central Dogma - Overview Study Guide

The process by which the instructions in DNA are turned into a functioning product is known as the 'Central Dogma.' Francis Crick, the discoverer of the structure of DNA, initially proposed it in 1958.


The central dogma in molecular biology depicts the passage of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. It is described as the process of converting the information in DNA into a functioning product. It is proposed that the information contained in DNA is required to create all proteins and that RNA functions as a messenger that transports information through the ribosomes.

Central Dogma Definition

The central dogma is the process through which genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to produce a functioning protein.

central dogma Source

What is Central Dogma?

  • The core dogma depicts the flow of genetic information in cells, including DNA replication and RNA coding via transcription and RNA coding for proteins via translation.

  • The framework might help you understand the notion of a succession of interactions. Biopolymers are among the most prevalent. Proteins, RNA, and DNA are the three primary categories of biopolymers, which are further subdivided into general transfers, unknown transfers, and special transfers.

  • Under the laboratory, special transfers occur in extraordinary circumstances. Almost all cells undergo general transfer. It represents the consistent flow of information via transcription and translation. Unknown transfers are supposed never to happen.

  • The new DNA strands are generated by combining one strand of the parent DNA with a freshly synthesized strand; this process is known as semiconservative DNA replication.

Central Dogma Steps

The central dogma takes place in two different steps:


  • Transcription is the process through which the enzyme RNA Polymerase transfers information from one strand of DNA to another.
  • The DNA strand that goes through this process is made up of three parts: a promoter, a structural gene, and a terminator.
  • The strand of DNA synthesizing the RNA is known as the template strand, while the other is known as the coding strand.
  • The promoter is bound by the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which catalyzes polymerization in the 3′ to 5′ direction.
  • It ends and releases the freshly generated RNA strand when it reaches the terminator sequence.
  • Post-transcriptional alterations are performed on the freshly released RNA strand.

transcription Source

B. Translation

  • The process through which RNA codes for specific proteins is known as translation. It is an active process that necessitates the expenditure of energy. The charged tRNA molecules give this energy.
  • Ribosomes start the translation process. Ribosomes are made up of bigger and smaller components.
  • The bigger component, in turn, is made up of two tRNA molecules that are near enough together to make a peptide bond at the expenditure of enough energy.
  • The mRNA enters the smaller subunit, subsequently held by the complementary codon's tRNA molecules in the bigger subunit.
  • As a result, two codons are bound together by two tRNA molecules near one other, and a peptide bond is created between them. Long polypeptide chains of amino acids are generated when this process is repeated.

The Genetic Code

  • The genetic code includes the information for the protein that is made from RNA.
  • Three nucleotides and four nitrogenous bases combine to generate a triplet codon, which codes for one amino acid.
  • As a result, the number of potential amino acids is 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 amino acids.
  • Twenty amino acids exist naturally.
  • The genetic code becomes degenerate. This was explained by the genetic code's properties, which state that a few amino acids are coded by more than one codon, leading them to degenerate.
  • Each codon codes for a single amino acid, and the codes are universal regardless of creature type.
  • Three of the 64 codons are stop codons that terminate the transcription process, while one is an initiator codon, AUG, which codes for Methionine.


  • The dogma is a framework for understanding the transmission of sequence information between information-carrying biopolymers in living beings, which is the most common or general situation.
  • There are three types of biopolymers: DNA, RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein.


1. What is the central dogma in your own words?

The central dogma is a molecular biology process that transmits genetic information from DNA to RNA and produces a functional protein product.

2. What is the function of central dogma?

  1. Making new DNA from existing DNA (DNA replication)
  2. From DNA, new RNA is produced (transcription);
  3. From RNA, new proteins are produced (translation).

3. What is the importance of central dogma in life?

The core dogma of molecular biology describes how genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA to produce a functioning output, a protein.

4. Does the central dogma apply to all life?

Yes, central dogma applies to all life.

5. How does central dogma relate to evolution?

According to the fundamental dogma, the most common pattern of information in our cells is: from existing DNA to build new DNA (DNA replication) Making fresh RNA from DNA (transcription) To create new proteins, RNA is used (translation).

6. What is the central dogma shared by all life?

In a process known as transcription, DNA controls the structure of mRNA, and RNA dictates the structure of a protein in a process known as translation. This is known as the Central Dogma of Life, and it applies to all species.

7. What are some examples of central dogma?

For example, the basic principle may be compared to producing your mother's brownie recipe. To begin, you contact your mother, who symbolizes the DNA. Then you listen and take notes on her directions. This is similar to transcription in that DNA is copied to mRNA during transcription.

8. Does the central dogma still stand?

The genetic assimilation of prion-dependent phenotypic heredity refutes the Central Dogma of molecular biology. As a result, the Central Dogma of molecular biology is incorrect as an 'absolute' principle: information transmission from proteins (particularly protein sequences) to the genome does exist.

We hope you enjoyed studying this lesson and learned something cool about the Central Dogma! Join our Discord community to get any questions you may have answered and to engage with other students just like you! Don't forget to download our App to experience our fun, VR classrooms - we promise, it makes studying much more fun!😎


  1. Central Dogma https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-biology-flexbook-2.0/section/4.1/primary/lesson/central-dogma-of-molecular-biology-bio/ Accessed on 2 Dec 2021.
  2. What is the 'Central Dogma'?https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-the-central-dogma Accessed on 2 Dec 2021
  3. Central Dogma of Biology: Classic View https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Class/MLACourse/Modules/MolBioReview/central_dogma.html Accessed on 2 Dec 2021
  4. Central dogma (DNA to RNA to protein)https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma Accessed on 2 Dec 2021
  5. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology https://www.nature.com/articles/227561a0 Accessed on 2 Dec 2021