Swati Talwar

MS-PS2-3

subatomic particle

fundamental particle characteristics

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

quarks and leptons

classification of fundamental particles

# Fundamental Particles Study Guide

Fundamental particles are the universe's smallest building blocks. Fundamental particles have no internal structure, which is one of their most distinguishing characteristics.

Table of content

## INTRODUCTION

In particle physics, an elementary particle, also known as a fundamental particle, is a subatomic particle that has no other particles attached to it.

## FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES CHARACTERISTICS

• Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three basic particles of matter.

• There are various approaches to dividing fundamental particles into groups. To begin, all particles are divided into fermions and bosons, which follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein statistics, respectively. Bosons have an integer spin, whereas fermions have a half-integer spin. Spin 1/2 is shared by all fundamental fermions.

• Quarks and leptons are the two most fundamental forms of particles. There are six flavors of quarks and leptons, which correspond to three generations of matter. Electric charges on quarks are measured in 1/3 or 2/3's.

## FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF  AN ATOM AND MATTER

Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three primary particles that make up an atom. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, which is at the heart of the atom, whereas electrons are found in the shells that orbit it.

### PROTONS

• A proton is a subatomic particle with the mass of one and the charge of one (positive charge).
• A proton is represented by the letters p or p+ .
• Protons are found in the nucleus of every atom.
• The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in its atom.
• A proton is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, often known as the H ion.

### NEUTRONS

• The neutron is a one-mass subatomic particle with no charge.
• In the atomic nucleus, neutrons coexist alongside protons.
• While an atom's element is determined by its number of protons, its isotope is determined by its number of neutrons.
• Nuclear fission and fusion are two nuclear reactions that produce a high amount of neutrons.

### ELECTRONS

• An electron is a stable subatomic particle with a negative electrical charge.
• Each electron carries one unit of negative charge (1.602 x 10-19 coulomb).
• A common symbol for an electron is e.
• Electrons are found free in nature (free electrons) and bound within atoms.
• The mass of an electron is 9.10938 x 10-31 kg.

## FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF QUARKS AND LEPTONS

Quarks are fundamental particles of matter that makeup protons and neutrons. Leptons are a type of fundamental particle that includes Electrons.

### QUARKS

Quarks are small particles that live inside protons and neutrons and come in six different flavors: up, down, weird, charm, bottom, and top. Two up quarks and a down quark make up protons, while two downs and an up make up neutrons.

### LEPTONS

Leptons are classified as fundamental particles since they do not appear to be made up of smaller particles. Leptons can be neutral or carry one unit of electric charge. Electrons, muons, and taus are charged leptons.

## CLASSIFICATION OF FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES

The universe around us is made up of two sorts of fundamental particles: matter particles and force particles, the photon, is responsible for electromagnetic radiation.

Because electrons, neutrinos, and muons are now included in the categorization, their properties must be half-integral. In contrast to the universal Fermi interaction, it is important to suppose that the neutrino is the source of the weak. Interaction of fermions in order to rule out certain undiscovered phenomena.

Three fundamental particles classification has the following properties:

i. Electrons: Electrons are particles with a negative charge. They have a little mass.

ii. Protons: Protons are particles with a positive charge. It doesn't leave the nucleus.

iii. Neutrons: have no charge and a mass that is almost equivalent to that of a proton.

## IMPORTANT TERMS

• A basic word was one that was considered to be the contract's "heart." It was further claimed that, unlike other contract conditions, the fulfillment of a fundamental provision could not be evaded by using an exemption clause.
• It was also claimed that a fundamental term's performance could not.

# SUMMARY

• Fundamental particles illustrate how the world can be interpreted in terms of about twenty different quantum fields and introduces the ultimate building components of matter, which include antimatter.
• In particle physics, an elementary particle, also known as a fundamental particle, is a subatomic particle that has no other particles attached to it. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three basic particles of matter.

## FAQ’s

Q. What are the Fundamental Particles?

The smallest building components of the universe are fundamental particles (also known as elementary particles). Fundamental particles have no internal structure, which is a distinguishing feature. To put it another way, they don't include any additional materials.

Q. What are the 12  fundamental Particles in-universe?

Quarks -Up(u), Down(d), strange(s), Charm(C), bottom(b), top(t)

Leptons –electron(e), electron-nuetrino, muon, tau, tau-nuetrino

Q. How many fundamental particles are there?

In the standard model, there are Six force particles that cause matter particles to interact. Gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak forces are the four fundamental forces.

We hope you enjoyed studying this lesson and learned something cool about Fundamental Particles! Join our Discord community to get any questions you may have answered and to engage with other students just like you! We promise, it makes studying much more fun!😎

## REFERENCE

1. What are the Three Fundamental Particles of the Atom? https://byjus.com/questions/what-are-the-three-fundamental-particles-of-the-atom/ Accessed 18th April 2022.