The definition of biotech as per The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, and portions thereof, as well as molecular analogies for products and services.
Biotechnology is a large field of biology that involves the development, modification, and production of useful goods for human welfare using both the technology and the application of live organisms and their components.
Biotechnology's primary concepts, as per modern biotechnology, are:
Genetic Engineering is another name for recombinant DNA technology. It is the process of connecting two DNA molecules from different species together. This is referred to as recombinant DNA.
The following are the steps involved in recombinant DNA technology:
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): Amplify a gene of interest to obtain numerous copies of the DNA of interest in vitro using a set of primers and the enzyme DNA polymerase.
Each cycle of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) consists of three steps:
The proliferation of cells in bioreactors is known as bioprocess engineering. The technique yields a huge culture volume, resulting in a greater yield of the needed protein. The obtained goods are put through a variety of procedures. Before further testing, the goods are filtered by downstream processing and put through a quality check. Antibiotics, vaccines Influenza), and other therapeutic medications (Insulin) are made using this method.
DNA sequencing of our genome, detailed studies on the genetic basis of heritable diseases, and the invention of technology to manipulate DNA provides methods to treat diseases. Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop a disease. Biotechnology in agriculture can enhance resistance to disease (transgenic plants), pests (the organic insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis), and environmental stress, and improve both crop yield and quality (Flavr Savr Tomato).
1. What is gene expression in biotechnology?
The process through which the instructions in our DNA are transformed into a functioning result, such as a protein, is known as gene expression. Transcription and translation are the two most important processes in producing a protein.
2. What is meant by regulation of gene expression?
The process of turning genes on and off is known as gene regulation. Cells begin to take on distinct tasks throughout early development. Gene regulation ensures the right genes are expressed at the right times. Gene control can also aid an organism's response to its surroundings.
3. Why is gene expression important to biotechnology?
Biotechnology is technology that utilizes biological systems, living organisms to develop or create different products. The cells manipulated using this technology contain genes that encode proteins of interest (the product). Gene expression is the process by which the instructions in these genes are converted into the desired protein. Thus gene expression is important to biotechnology.
4. What are restriction enzymes? What is their function?
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at or near restriction sites, with particular recognition nucleotide sequences. Isolated restriction enzymes are key tools for recombinant DNA technology and modify DNA for many scientific applications.
5. What are bioreactors?
A bioreactor is a cylindrical cylinder in which large-scale biological activities are carried out. By supplying appropriate growth conditions such as temperature, pH, substrate, salts, vitamins, and oxygen, a bioreactor helps to get the desired result.
6. What is a cloning Vector?
Cloning vectors transfer foreign DNA into another cell and replicate it numerous times. The foreign DNA is copied and expressed using the host cell’s machinery. It multiplies a single copy of DNA into several copies.
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