# Atomic Forces Study Guide

INTRODUCTION

Every day, we employ forces in our lives. For example, when you kick a ball, your foot imparts a force on the ball, which causes it to move.

Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three primary particles that make up the atom. The behavior of the particles is controlled by four forces: electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and gravity.

## ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

The effects of electrical charge and magnetism are combined in this force. The electromagnetic force has the ability to attract or repel particles depending on how it is used. Like particles repel one another, while oppositely charged particles attract each other.

The electromagnetic force keeps electrons in orbit around the nucleus because the positively charged nucleus in the center of the atom attracts the negatively charged electrons.

## STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE

• The strong nuclear force is an attractive interaction between fundamental particles known as quarks, which have a charge known as color charge.
• Fundamental force-carrying particles called gluons transport the strong nuclear force between quarks.
• Quarks are found in both protons and neutrons.
• Quarks in a proton or neutron are held together by the exchange of gluons.
• Protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held together by excess, or residual, strong force.
• The strong nuclear force is powerful enough to drive protons away despite the electromagnetic repulsion force.

## WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE

The exchange of force-carrying basic particles named W and Z bosons transfers the weak nuclear force. This is likewise a very short-range force that only functions within the atom’s nucleus. It is substantially weaker than the strong or electromagnetic forces that also operate within the atom. The weak nuclear force, unlike the other two, does not bind subatomic particles together in an atom. Instead, it transforms subatomic particles into different types.

## GRAVITY

The force of gravitation that exists between all objects in nature is known as gravity. Apples and leaves fall to the earth from trees due to gravity, and planets remain in orbit around the sun due to gravity.

The behavior of massive things is the most obvious manifestation of gravity. Gravity has a minor effect inside the tiny nucleus of an atom when compared to the other three forces. As a result, gravity is the least powerful of the four forces.

## ATOMIC FORCES (MICROSCOPE) PRINCIPLE

Atomic force microscopes use a non-optical surface interrogation approach that is unique. Scanning probe microscopy, which uses a physical probe to examine the surface features of samples with atomic resolution for lateral and height measurements, is the foundation for this.

Atomic force microscopy is based on the idea that a nanoscale probe is linked to a small cantilever that acts as a spring. The cantilever bends as the tip makes contact with the surface, and the bending is detected using a laser diode and a split photodetector. The tip-sample contact force is shown by this bending.

## ATOMIC FORCES MICROSCOPE APPLICATIONS

• It’s suitable for vacuums, air, and liquids.
• Samples for observation are simple to produce.
• It’s suitable for vacuums, air, and liquids.
• The sample sizes are precisely measured.
• It features a three-dimensional imaging capability.
• It could be used to investigate both live and nonliving matter.
• And can be used to determine how rough a surface is.

## STRONGEST ATOMIC FORCE

• Gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the other three fundamental forces in existence.
• The strong nuclear force, as its name implies, is the most powerful of the four forces.
• It is in charge of joining the fundamental particles of matter together to generate larger particles.

# SUMMARY

• Every day, we employ forces in our lives.
• Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three primary particles that make up the atom.
• The behavior of the particles is controlled by four forces: Electromagnetic force, Strong nuclear force, Weak nuclear force, and Gravity).
• Gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the other three fundamental forces in existence.

## FAQs

Q. What are the 2 forces that act on atoms?

The atom is held together by both strong and electromagnetic forces.

Q. What is the strongest atomic force?

The strong nuclear force, as its name implies, is the most powerful of the four forces. It is in charge of joining the fundamental particles of matter together to generate larger particles.

Q. What are the 3 forces that hold the atom together?

• Electromagnetic force
• Strong nuclear force
• Weak nuclear force

Q. What are the 4 quantum forces?

• Gravitational force
• Electromagnetic force
• Strong nuclear force
• Weak nuclear force

We hope you enjoyed studying this lesson and learned something cool about Atomic Forces! Join our Discord community to get any questions you may have answered and to engage with other students just like you! We promise, it makes studying much more fun!ðŸ˜Ž

## REFERENCE

1. Atomic Forces: https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-physics-flexbook-2.0/section/20.2/primary/lesson/atomic-forces-ms-ps/Â Accessed 19th April 2022.
2. Nuclear forces: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_forceÂ Accessed 19th April 2022
3. Forces Within the Atom: https://w3.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/atomic_force/#:~:text=The%20atom%20is%20comprised%20of,thus%20keep%20the%20atom%20together.Â Accessed 19th April 2022
4. AFM Principle: https://afm.oxinst.com/outreach/how-does-an-afm-microscope-workÂ Accessed 19th April 2022
]]>