Chapter 16: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Revision Notes
Reduce, re-use, and recycle
Each member of our society may participate in the 3 Rs to conserve the environment:
Reduce: We must reduce our consumption and wasteful practises. For example, avoiding wasting food, saving power by shutting off lights, replacing faulty faucets, minimising the quantity of water used for bathing, and so on.
Reuse is the practise of repurposing something rather than discarding them. Reusing plastic utensils and bottles, for example. Many objects can’t be recycled or take a lot of energy; yet, we can put them to better use.
Recycling is the process of collecting waste paper, plastic, glass, or metal things in order to create new goods rather than creating them from start. It is necessary to have a system in place to separate and dispose of each sort of trash separately.
Why is it necessary for us to manage our resources?
- Natural resources are being drained at an alarming rate as a result of increased population and changing lifestyle demands. Management of resources must be an inherent component of our society in order to maintain a sustainable, equitable distribution of resources and the minimization of environmental harm.
- We must guarantee that we make wise use of our natural resources, which are finite and require long-term planning in order to endure generations.
- Demand for natural resources is increasing.
- As the world’s population grows, so does the need for more resources, which are depleting at an exponential rate.
- Changing lifestyles and technological improvements are forcing corporations to abuse our natural resources to fulfil demand.
WILDLIFE AND FORESTS
- Biodiversity hotspots are defined as forests.
- The variety and range of plant and animal life in a given ecosystem is referred to as biodiversity.
- Ecological equilibrium and ecosystem harm may be lost as a result of biodiversity loss.
- When it comes to forest conservation, the following stakeholders must be considered:
- People who live in close proximity to woods and rely on forest products.
- The land and resources are owned by the government’s Forest Department.
Forest intervention by people
- In the management of forest resources and landscapes, human intervention is required.
- To assure progress while maintaining the environment, resources must be utilised.
- To guarantee that economic progress and conservation occur at the same time, benefits must be distributed to the local population.
- Bishnoi community in Rajasthan, for example, is working to save Khejri trees in Jodhpur.
Damage to forests and wildlife
- Excessive and illegal logging will degrade forest resources faster than they can be replenished.
- Destroys the ecological balance and threatens the habitats of many flora and animal species.
- Sustainable development necessitates the satisfaction of all forest resource stakeholders.
- In practise, companies use forests at considerably lower prices than the market, resulting in tensions between local residents and industrialists.
- Chipko is a Japanese movement.
- In the 1970s, the Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) was one such example of confrontation between industrialists and rural residents.
- All terrestrial kinds of life require water to survive.
- In India, regions where there is a lack of water are also places where there is a lot of poverty.
- Despite the monsoon, there is a failure to retain groundwater due to the loss of vegetation and the discharge of industrial effluents.
- Due to the loss of the water table and the interruption of the water cycle, there is a decrease in fresh drinkable water.
- Dams have the ability to hold vast volumes of water while also generating energy.
- Dam mismanagement leads to exploitation, and the resource is not distributed fairly.
- Large dams have been criticised for the following reasons:
(i) Forced eviction of indigenous peoples without compensation
(ii) Corruption and money consumption without benefit generating
(iii) Environmental issues, such as deforestation
PETROLEUM AND COAL
- Coal and petroleum are both fossil fuels.
- Coal and petroleum are derived from non-renewable fossil fuels. They will eventually be depleted. As a result, careful control of fossil fuel usage is critical.
- Their combustion pollutes the environment by emitting carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen oxides. As a result, we must use these resources wisely.
Why is it important to utilize fossil fuels sparingly?
- Fossil fuels are made up of a tremendous quantity of carbon and are generated through millions of years of decomposing vegetation.
- When they are burned in an environment with a limited supply of oxygen, they produce toxic gases that damage the climate and contribute to global warming.
- The wise use of fossil fuels improves the efficiency of our machinery and protects the long-term viability of our resources.