🗻Big Picture: DNA replication is also known as semi-conservative replication and is the process in which the DNA doubles. This is an important process that takes place in the living cells. Let us understand the DNA structure and how the replication steps take place.
Every cell in our body contains DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the carrier of genetic instructions that makes every species unique and drives the development and functioning of an organism.
The structure of DNA is a double helix, and it looks like a twisted ladder.
A pair of nitrogenous bases make up the steps of the DNA ladder, while the sides of the ladder are made of deoxyribose and phosphate molecules.
Each strand of DNA is referred to as a polynucleotide chain.
Four different types of nitrogenous bases adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) are found in DNA, and these have a specific pairing pattern.
Hydrogen bonds and the stacking of the base pairs stabilize the helical structure.
Two straight strands of double-stranded DNA that run counter to one another, or anti-parallel, and twist together are known as the double helix.
Each DNA strand in the double helix is a long, linear molecule consisting of nucleotides, which are smaller building blocks that link together to form a chain.
The sugar-phosphate backbones, also known as the chemical backbones of the double helix, are composed of phosphate and sugar molecules joined together by chemical bonds.
The two helical strands are joined through interactions between pairs of nucleotides, also termed base pairs. Nucleotide A pairs with T and nucleotide C pairs with G, respectively, in two different types of base pairing.
The base pairing was based on the observation of Erwin Chargaff:
In any double-stranded DNA, the purine and pyrimidine base pairs are in equal amounts. A + G = T + C
The proportion of A is equal to T, and the proportion of G is equal to C, but the amount of A + T is not necessarily equal to G + C.
During the S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle, DNA undergoes a step wherein it makes a copy of the cell's entire DNA. This copying is also called replication.
The replication of DNA takes place in three stages: Initiation, elongation, and termination.
1. How does the structure of DNA relate to DNA replication?
The double helix structure of the DNA opens when the hydrogen bonds break, and every DNA strand acts as a template in the synthesis of a new and complementary strand.
2. What are DNA structure and replication purposes?
DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the cells genetic instructions and replication produces two double helical DNA copies.
3. What are the 4 steps of DNA replication?
4. What DNA structure regulates replication?
The replisome is recruited to regulate DNA replication.
5. What is DNA replication called?
It is called a semi-conservative process.
6. What is the main goal of DNA replication?
The main goal of DNA replication is to produce a second and identical DNA double strand.
7. When and Where does DNA replication take place?
DNA replication occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes and the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. It occurs in the synthesis phase.
8. What are the 7 steps of DNA replication?
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