In molecular biology and genetics, translation is described as the process in which the ribosomes in the cytoplasm synthesize proteins. Along with transcription, the entire process is known as gene expression.
If we try to understand the literal meaning of 'translation,' it would simply mean "to carry across." In the case of gene expressions, what is being translated is the information originally included in DNA and was already present in the genome. Then it gets transcribed into messenger RNA, and later that information is translated from the messenger RNA to a protein.
The process of translation occurs outside the nucleus. In translation, the messenger RNA formed in transcription is sent out of the nucleus. It goes into the cytoplasm and then to the ribosome. Then this messenger RNA directs the protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is not directly involved in protein synthesis and requires a transfer RNA (tRNA). Hence, this process in which a messenger RNA directs the protein synthesis with the help of transfer RNA is known as translation.
There are three key steps of translation. Each of these steps is associated with different proteins. At every step, ATP and GTP are used as energy sources.
The translation is the synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template. The purpose of translation is to synthesize proteins used for millions of cellular functions.
The salient features of translation are:
The process of transcription and translation are together termed gene expression.
Regulation of gene expression is described as a process of turning genes on and off. It involves a wide range of mechanisms used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific RNA or protein. During early development, cells begin to take on specific functions. Gene regulation ensures that the appropriate genes are expressed at the proper times.
Gene regulation is essential for viruses, eukaryotes, and also prokaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of the organisms by allowing the cell to express protein when needed.
Gene expression is regulated on two levels.
Translational control is used to regulate gene expression. Translational control governs the efficiency of mRNAs and thus plays an important role in modulating the expression of many genes that respond to signals such as nutrient supply, hormones, or stress.
1. How is gene expression regulated in translation?
Gene expression is regulated on two levels. First, transcription is controlled by limiting the amount of mRNA produced from a particular gene. In the second level, mRNA translation into proteins is regulated through post-transcriptional events.
2. Can gene expression be regulated during translation?
Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including the translation of mRNAs into proteins.
3. What is the relationship between translation and gene expression?
The translation is the second major step in gene expression. The mRNA is "read" in translation according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins.
4. Does gene expression include translation?
Yes, gene expression includes translation. It is the second step after transcription.
5. What is the difference between gene expression and gene regulation?
The key difference between gene expression and gene regulation is that gene expression is the process that synthesizes a protein by using the information in a gene. In contrast, gene regulation is the process of controlling the rate and the manner of gene expression.
6. Can gene expression be regulated before transcription?
Yes, gene expression can be regulated before transcription. Eukaryotic gene expression begins with control of access to the DNA. This regulation is known as epigenetic regulation, and it occurs even before transcription is initiated.
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